Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Classical makers of neurodegeneration

Sylics routinely performs analyses using a range of typical IHC markers in various mouse models. Classical markers to study hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease in mouse models include the 6E10 antibody to quantify plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. In Tau models, we employ the anti phopho-Tau antibody to detect early signs of Tau pathology. For more advanced Tau pathology, we use Thioflavin-S staining of intracellular filamentous Tau inclusions. Similarly, we use anti tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to quantify dopaminergic cell loss in our MPTP model neurotoxicity model relevant to Parkinson’s disease.

Brain distribution of therapeutic agents after ICV administration

Sylics has profound expertise in intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of biologicals, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) and small molecules. Using staining of biologicals or direct visualization of fluorescent tags, we can analyze the distribution of fluorescently labelled therapeutic agents after ICV administration throughout the brain.

Makers of neuroinflammation

Microglia are the brains resident macrophages that can be stained with Iba1 (see our reference images). These cells account for 10-15% of the cells in the brain, are normally small, and distributed in a well-ordered fashion with numerous ramifications. In the brains of APP/PS1 mice microglia show a reactive phenotype, characterized by a swollen cell body and retracted ramifications.

Astrocytes are star shaped cells that provide essential support to neurons and synapses. Most astrocytes express GFAP at low levels under healthy conditions. Upon response to triggers in their proximity, reactive astrocytes upregulate GFAP leading to an increased number of GFAP cells. This increase in GFAP reactivity is seen in plaque bearing APP/PS1 mice in comparison with control wild type mice (see our reference images).

Custom IHC markers

Sylics has profound expertise in adopting staining protocols upon the request of clients. For instance, we have worked with antibodies to detect β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Mutations in this enzyme cause Gaucher’s disease, a lysosomal storage disease and increase risk developing Parkinson’s disease.